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Research and Publications by Jonathan Haidt

My research falls into six major areas, all related to morality. Please click on one to see an overview and representative publications

1) Moral Psychology (particularly intuitionism and the social intuitionist model)

2) Business, and business ethics (a social psychological approach)

3) Political psychology (particularly the moral foundations of ideology)

4) Cultural psychology (particularly how morality and emotions vary across cultures)

5) Moral Elevation (and other positive moral emotions)

6) Disgust (as a moral emotion; also contains information about The Disgust Scale)

[these subpages are not all updated; but the full list of publications on this page is complete]

Here is my Curriculum Vitae

Below is a complete list of all publications

I) Books


Keyes, C. L. M., & Haidt, J. (Eds.) (2003). Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well lived. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.


Haidt, J. (2006). The happiness hypothesis: Finding modern truth in ancient wisdom. New York : Basic Books.


Haidt, J. (2012) The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. New York: Pantheon. See the book's website:

4) Haidt, J. (2017 anticipated) Three Stories about Capitalism: The Moral Psychology of Economic Life. Book under contract with Pantheon


II) Articles

Google Scholar calculates my “h” index as 55, and shows 23,000 citations of my work
** indicates most important articles

---------- Early Articles (1993-2000) ----------


**Haidt, J., Koller, S., & Dias, M. (1993). Affect, culture, and morality, or is it wrong to eat your dog? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 613-628. Request Article

--This is the published version of my dissertation. It examined a debate between Eliott Turiel and Richard Shweder, on whether morality really varied by culture. Using harmless yet offensive stories (such as a family that eats its pet dog, after the dog was killed by a car), I found evidence that strongly supported Shweder: morality did indeed vary by culture. Unexpectedly, cultural differences across social classes within each country were larger than differences across nations (U.S. vs. Brazil). This research showed me the importance of culture and of emotion for understanding moral judgment. If you would like to see my original dissertation, which gives more detail about methods and more tables of results, you can view it here.


Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. (1993). Disgust. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.) Handbook of emotions. New York: Guilford Press.

--This was our first major statement on disgust, particularly on the expansion of disgust from "core" through "animal-reminder", "interpersonal" and "moral" disgust. But there's no need to read this article; it is superceded by the 2 more recent editions, which are #17 and #48 below. Rozin has been writing on disgust since the 1980s.


Shweder, R., & Haidt, J. (1993). The future of moral psychology: Truth, intuition, and the pluralist way. Psychological Science, 4, 360-365. Request article

--This theoretical article is an early statement of moral intuitionism; It was written mostly by Shweder, while I was working with him as a post-doctoral researcher. It shows the profound influence of Shweder's ideas upon my later thinking.


Imada, S., Yamada, Y., & Haidt, J. (1993). The differences of Ken'o (disgust) experiences for Japanese and American students. Studies in the Humanities and Sciences, Hiroshima-Shudo University , 34, 155-173. Request article


Haidt, J., McCauley, C., & Rozin, P. (1994) . Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 701-713. Request article

--This article introduced The Disgust Scale, the most widely used measure of individual differences in disgust sensitivity. For more on the emotion of disgust and its measurement, click here.


Haidt, J., & Koller, S. (1994). Julgamento moral nos Estados Unidos e no Brasil: Uma visao intuicionista. (English title: "Moral judgment in the United States and Brazil : An intuitionist view.") Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica, 7, 79-94. ( Brazil ). Request article


Haidt, J. & Rodin, J. (1995). Control and efficacy: An integrative review. Report to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. [see #16 for a short, published version]


Haidt, J. & Baron, J. (1996). Social roles and the moral judgement of acts and omissions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 201-218. Request article

--These experiments show that people judge acts of commission to be morally worse than equivalent acts of omission, but the difference goes away when the person being judged was in a role-relationship to the victim (e.g., friend, or boss) that required him/her to look out for the interests of the other person.


Haidt, J., Rozin, P., McCauley, C., & Imada, S. (1997). Body, psyche, and culture: The relationship of disgust to morality. Psychology and Developing Societies, 9, 107-131. View article


Rozin, P., Haidt, J., McCauley, C., & Imada, S. (1997). Disgust: Preadaptation and the cultural evolution of a food-based emotion. In H. MacBeth (Ed.) Food preferences and taste. Providence: Berghahn Books, 65-82.


Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. R. (1999). Disgust: The body and soul emotion. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.). Handbook of cognition and emotion. Chichester, UK: Wiley. 429-445. Request article


Rozin, P., Lowery, L., Imada, S., & Haidt, J. (1999) The moral-emotion triad hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral ethics (community, autonomy, divinity). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 574-586. Request article


** Haidt, J. & Keltner, D. (1999). Culture and emotion: Multiple methods find new faces and a gradient of recognition. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 225-266. Request article

--Keltner and I used multiple methods, including asking subjects to tell us stories about what might have happened to make the person in the photograph make a particular face. We found strong support for Paul Ekman's claims about universality. But we did not find a clear distinction between his set of universal emotional expressions, and a variety of additional expressions we examined. Rather, we found a "gradient" of universality, with some expressions eliciting very high agreement across cultures and methods, others elicited less agreement. This is one of the best pieces of empirical work I ever did. I thought it was going to resolve the debate over whether or not facial expressions of emotion are understood universally. But because it was published in a second level journal, nobody cites it.


Rozin, P., Haidt, J., McCauley, C., Dunlop, L., & Ashmore, M . (1999). Individual differences in disgust sensitivity: Comparisons and evaluations of paper-and-pencil versus behavioral measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 330-351. Request article


Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). The social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 505-522. Request article


Haidt, J. & Rodin, J. (1999) Control and efficacy as interdisciplinary bridges. Review of General Psychology, 3, 317-337. Request article


** Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. R. (2000). Disgust. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.) Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, (pp.637-653). New York: Guilford Press. Request article [but see #48 for most recent edition]


Shweder, R. A., & Haidt, J. (2000). The cultural psychology of the emotions: Ancient and new. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Ed.), Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, (pp. 397-414). New York: Guilford . Request article


Haidt, J . (2000). The positive emotion of elevation. Prevention and Treatment, 3. Request article

--This was my first publication on moral elevation, but see #26 for a much fuller statement, and see #63 for empirical evidence.


---------- 2001 ----------


Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (2001). Social functions of emotions. In T. Mayne & G. A. Bonanno (Eds.), Emotions: Current issues and future directions. New York: Guilford Press. (pp. 192-213). View article


Haidt, J., & Hersh, M. (2001). Sexual morality: The cultures and emotions of conservatives and liberals. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,31, 191-221. Request article

--This was the undergraduate honors thesis of Matthew Hersh. It was my first venture into political psychology. We found that conservatives moralized sexual issues more thatn liberals, and that they were more likely to become "morally dumbfounded" while trying to explain themselves. But the differences were largest on homosexuality -- an issue in the culture war -- and they were much smaller for issues of consensual incest.


** Haidt, J . (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review. 108, 814-834. Request article

--This is the most important article I've ever written. It was my effort to bring together the newest developments in many fields in the 1990s, and link them up to older ideas (from David Hume and Robert Zajonc) about the primacy of affect. I formulated the "Social Intuitionist Model" as an alternative to the rationalist models that had dominated moral psychology in the 1980s and 1990s. The model says that most of the action in moral psychology is in our intuitions -- our automatic evaluative responses. People do indeed reason, but that reasoning is done primarily to prepare for social interaction, not to search for truth. We are just not very good at thinking open-mindedly about moral issues, so rationalist models end up being poor descriptions of actual moral psychology.


---------- 2002 ----------


Haidt, J. (2002). "Dialogue between my head and my heart:" Affective influences on moral judgment. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 54-56. View article


Greene, J., & Haidt, J. (2002). How (and where) does moral judgment work? Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 517-523. Request article

--This article, written mostly by Joshua Greene, was my introduction to social-cognitive neuroscience. We reviewed all extant studies in which people had been presented with moral violations or dilemmas while in an fMRI scanner. We identified the brain regions most frequently mentioned, but we cautioned that "there is no specifically moral part of the brain. Every brain region discussed in this article has also been implicated in non-moral processes."


---------- 2003 ----------


Haidt, J. (2003). The moral emotions. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(pp. 852-870). Request article

--From the abstract: "Four families of moral emotions are discussed: the other-condemning family (contempt, anger, and disgust), the self-conscious family (shame, embarrassment, and guilt), the other-suffering family (compassion), and the other-praising family (gratitude and elevation). For each emotion, the elicitors and action tendencies that make it a moral emotion are discussed."


** Haidt, J. (2003). Elevation and the positive psychology of morality. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.) Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. Washington DC : American Psychological Association. (pp. 275-289). View article

--This was my first major statement on the emotion of moral elevation -- a warm, uplifting feeling we get when we witness acts of moral beauty. The article offers an overview of a set of positive moral emotions that had not yet been studied empirically. For empirical evidence about elevation, see Pub #63.


Keyes, C. L. M., & Haidt, J. (2003). Positive Psychology: The study of 'That Which Makes Life Worthwhile.' In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.) Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. Washington DC : American Psychological Association. (pp. 3-12). View article

--This is the introduction to the volume I co-edited, Flourishing. It gives a short overview of positive psychology. For a more recent overview, see #36


**Keltner, D., & Haidt, J . (2003). Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 297-314. Request article

--Keltner and I were surprised to find that there was essentially no empirical work in psychology on the emotion of awe. There was almost no theoretical work either. We scoured other fields for some ideas and hypotheses about this powerful but rare emotion. We present a prototype approach to awe, and we suggest that two appraisals are central to the most prototypical cases: perceived vastness, and need for accommodation (i.e., the inability to assimilate an experience into current mental structures).


Haidt, J., Rosenberg, E., & Hom, H . (2003). Differentiating diversities: Moral diversity is not like other kinds. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1-36. Request article

--We question the widespread celbration of diversity, noting that from a social-psychological point of view, diversity ought to cause many problems, particularly divisiveness and internal conflict. We argue that moral diversity is the real problem, and that discussion of diversity should distinguish among kinds of diversity. Three studies of attitudes and desires for interaction among college students confirm that moral diversity reduces desires for interaction more than does demographic diversity, and that both kinds of diversity are valued more in a classroom than in other social settings.This research was the honors thesis of Evan Rosenberg


Haidt, J. (2003). The emotional dog does learn new tricks: A reply to Pizarro and Bloom (2003). Psychological Review, 110, 197-198. Request article


---------- 2004 ----------


Haidt, J. & Keltner, D . (2004). Appreciation of beauty and excellence. In C. Peterson and M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.) Character strengths and virtues. Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press. pp. 537-551. Request article


Haidt, J., & Algoe, S. (2004). Moral amplification and the emotions that attach us to saints and demons. In J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, & Tom Pyszczynski (Eds.) Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology. New York: Guilford. View article


Haidt, J. (2004). The emotional dog gets mistaken for a possum. Review of General Psychology, 8, 283-290. Request article


Mick, D. G., Broniarczyk , S. M., & Haidt, J. (2004). Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose: Emerging and Prospective Research on the Deleterious Effects of Living in Consumer Hyperchoice. Journal of Business Ethics, 207-211. Request article


Haidt, J., & Joseph, C. (2004). Intuitive Ethics: How Innately Prepared Intuitions Generate Culturally Variable Virtues. Daedalus, pp. 55-66, Special issue on human nature. Request article

--This was my first statement of "moral foundations theory", an attempt to specify the best candidates for being the evolved and innate psychological systems upon which cultures construct an enormous variety of virtues and institutions. For a fuller statement, see pub #41 and pub #62. For more on moral foundations theory see


---------- 2005 ----------


Gable, S., & Haidt, J. (2005). Positive Psychology. Review of General Psychology, 9, 1089-2680. [Introduction to special issue on positive psychology] Request article


Wheatley, T., & Haidt, J. (2005). Hypnotically induced disgust makes moral judgments more severe. Psychological Science, 16, 780-784.

Request article


Haidt, J. (2005). Invisible fences of the moral domain. (Commentary on Sunstein, 'Moral Heuristics'). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, pp. 552-553. Request article


---------- 2006 ----------


Haidt, J. et al. (2006). What is the role of heuristics in making law? In C. Engel and G. Gigerenzer, eds. Heuristics and the Law. Dahlem Workshop Report 94. Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press. Website for the book is here. Request article


Keltner, D., Haidt, J., & Shiota, L. (2006). Social Functionalism and the Evolution of Emotions. In M. Schaller, D. Kenrick, & J. Simpson (Eds.) Evolution and Social Psychology pp. 115-142. View article


---------- 2007 ----------


**Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2007). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research, 20, 98-116. Request article
--This is an accessible introduction to moral foundations theory. It was given the Morton Deutsch Award, for the best article published in Social Justice Research in 2007


Haidt, J., & Kesebir, S. (2007). In the forest of value: Why moral intuitions are different from other kinds. In H. Plessner, C. Betsch, & T. Betsch (eds.) A new look on intuition in judgment and decision making. Request article


Haidt, J., & Joseph, C. (2007). The moral mind: How 5 sets of innate moral intuitions guide the development of many culture-specific virtues, and perhaps even modules. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, and S. Stich (Eds.) The Innate Mind, Vol. 3. New York: Oxford, pp. 367-391. View article
--This is our most complete statement of the cognitive science of morality. It examines various notions of "modularity," concluding that for moral and cultural psychology, the best one is the version proposed by Dan Sperber in which "learning modules" are innate, and they generate dozens or hundreds of culture-specific modules during childhood. It is also our most complete statement on virtue ethics, thanks to the expertise of Craig Joseph.


** Haidt, J. (2007). The new synthesis in moral psychology. Science, 316, 998-1002. Request article or view online
--I was invited to summarize the state of the art in moral psychology for Science. I had to say it all in less than 2 pages. This exercize helped me to identify the 4 principles of moral psychology that now guide my approach to so much of moral and political psychology: 1) Intuitive primacy (but not dictatorship), 2) Moral thinking is for social doing, 3) Morality binds and builds, 4) There is more to morality than harm and fairness.

45 Haidt, J. (2007) Response (to a letter by David Barash), Science, 317, 596-597. Request article or view online

**Haidt, J. (2007) Moral psychology and the misunderstanding of religion. Published on, 9/9/07. View article
--I was so frustrated by the moralism of Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris, who claimed to be simply presenting the scientific facts on religion. I differ from them in believing that religion is an evolutionary adaptation, not a byproduct or cultural parasite. (I follow David Sloan Wilson on this point.) I show how their writings in fact illustrate the four basic principles of moral psychology; they do not illustrate disinterested scientific inquiry.
--This essay was given a "Sidney Award," by David Brooks (New York Times) as one of the 10 best essays of 2007
--This essay was reprinted in: J. Schloss & M. Murray (eds.), (2009). The believing primate: Scientific, philosophical, and theological reflections on the origin of religion. New York: Oxford. pp. 278-291.
This version is better for printing than the original Edge essay-- it is better formatted, and includes references.


Haidt, J. (2007). Doing science as if groups existed. Published on, 12/7/07. View article
--This essay is my response to critiques/comments of article #46, by David Sloan Wilson, Michael Shermer, Sam Harris, PZ Myers, and Marc Hauser. Their comments can be seen above my response.


---------- 2008 ----------


Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. R. (2008). Disgust. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions, 3rd ed. (pp. 757-776). New York: Guilford Press. Request article
--This is our most complete review of the psychology of disgust


**Haidt, J., & Bjorklund, F. (2008). Social intuitionists answer six questions about moral psychology. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2: The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (pp. 181-217). Request article

--This is the most comprehensive summary of the social intuitionist model. It is the best work to read for those interested in moral philosophy.


Haidt, J., & Bjorklund, F. (2008). Social intuitionists reason, as a normal part of conversation. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2: The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Request article


Shweder, R. A., Haidt, J., Horton, R., & Joseph, C. (2008). The cultural psychology of the emotions: Ancient and renewed. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions, 3rd ed. (pp. 409-427). New York: Guilford Press. Request article
--This article, written mostly by Shweder, is particularly noteworthy for its presentation of Rasa theory, an ancient Hindu idea about aesthetic emotions.


**Haidt, J. (2008). Morality. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 65-72. Request article
--This article gives a medium-length overview of moral psychology. (Longer than #44, but shorter than #77). It places the history of moral psychology within 2 competing narratives about modernity, a liberal one about liberation, and a conservative one about decline and loss. It argues that the field of moral psychology, which is composed almost entirely of liberals, needs to pay more attention to conservative ideas and concerns.


Silvers, J., & Haidt, J. (2008). Moral Elevation Can Induce Lactation. Emotion, 8, 291-295. Request article
--This is one of the two most bizarre (and, i think interesting) empirical studies I've ever done (along with #37). When lactating women watched an elevating/inspiring videotape, they were more likely to leak breast milk, and more likely to pick up and suckle their infants, compared to women who watched an amusing video. We believe the mediating mechanism was the release of the hormone oxytocin.


**Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G., & Jordan, A. (2008). Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1096-1109. Request article
--This article offers the clearest empirical evidence to date that extraneous feelings of disgust (induced via sitting at a dirty desk, watching a disgusting video, or smelling fart spray) makes moral judgment more severe.

55 ** Haidt, J. (2008) What makes people vote Republican? Published on, 9/9/08. View article

Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. R. (2008). Disgust: The body and soul emotion in the 21st century. In D. McKay & O. Olatunji (eds.), Disgust and its disorders. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. P. 9-29. View article


Olatunji, B. O., Haidt, J., McKay, D., David, B., (2008). Core, animal reminder, and contamination disgust: Three kinds of disgust with distinct personality, behavioral, physiological, and clinical correlates. Journal of Research in Personality, 42. 1243-1259. Request article


Algoe, S., & Haidt, J., & Gable, S. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships in everyday life. Emotion, 8, 425-429. Request article


**Haidt, J., Seder, P., & Kesebir, S. (2008). Hive Psychology, Happiness, and Public Policy. Journal of Legal Studies, 37, S133-S156 Request article
Reprinted in: : E. A. Posner & C. Sunstein (eds.) (2010) Law and Happiness. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press. pp. 133-156.
--This was my first full statement about "hive psychology", which is the idea that human beings are, like bees, products of multi-level selection. But we accomplish our hivishness in a very different way than bees: We have a variety of psychological mechanisms that make us love to lose ourselves in larger groups. Among the most important of these mechanisms is synchronous movement, which has been used in rituals and by militaries for thousands of years to bond groups together.


Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2008). Ideology and intuition in moral education. European Journal of Developmental Science, 2, 269-286. Request article


---------- 2009 ----------

61 Haidt, J. (2009). Obama’s moral majority. Prospect, 155 (Feb 2009). View article
--Some advice for Obama and the Democrats, from the perspective of Moral Foundations Theory, on the eve of Obama's inauguration. He didn't take it.

**Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2009). Planet of the Durkheimians, Where Community, Authority, and Sacredness are Foundations of Morality. In J. Jost, A. C. Kay, & H. Thorisdottir (Eds.), Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification. Request article [Here is a link to the manuscript, which may be easier to read than the scanned version of the final article.]
--This is the most sociological article I've ever written, and its one I'm most proud of. When I first read Durkheim, in graduate school, I had an experience of enlightenment -- my first view of societies as emergent organisms. This article applies the ideas of Durkheim, Tonnies, and Weber to Moral Foundations Theory.

63 **Algoe, S., Haidt, J., (2009). Witnessing Excellence in Action: The other-praising emotions of elevation, admiration, and gratitude. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 105-127. Request article
--This is the major empirical article on the emotion of moral elevation.
64 **Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. (2009). Liberals and conservatives use different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 1029-1046. Request article
--This is the first major empirical article testing Moral Foundations Theory. In four studies we found that liberals relied primarily on harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity, whereas conservatives relied on all five foundations. We found this difference even when we coded sermons given in liberal versus conservative churches.

Haidt, J., & Morris, J. P. (2009). Finding the self in self-transcendent emotions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 7687-7688. Request article


Sherman, G., Haidt, J., & Coan, J. (2009). Viewing cute images increases behavioral carefulness. Emotion, 9, 282-286. Request article

67 Oveis, C., Cohen, A. B., Gruber, J., Shiota, M. N., Haidt, J., & Keltner, D. (2009). Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality. Emotion, 265-270. Request article

Olatunji, B. O., Moretz, M. W., Bjorklund, F., de Jong, P., Haidt, J., Hursti, T. J., Imada, S., Koller, S., Mancini, F., McKay, D., Page, A. C., & Schienle, A. (2009). Confirming the Three-Factor Structure of the Disgust Scale-Revised in Eight Countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 234-255. Request article

69 Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & Fincher, K. (2009). From oral to moral. Science, 323, 1179-1180. Request article

Haidt, J., Graham, J., & Joseph, C. (2009). Above and below left-right: Ideological narratives and moral foundations. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 110-119. Request article


Joseph, C., Graham, J., & Haidt, J. (2009). The end of equipotentiality: A moral foundations approach to ideology-attitude links and cognitive complexity. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 172-176.


Glenn, A., Koleva, S., Iyer, R., Graham, J., Haidt, J. (2009). Are all types of morality compromised in psychopathy?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23, 384-398. Request article

73 Haidt, J., & Seder, P. (2009) Admiration and Awe. Entry for the Oxford Companion to Affective Science. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp.4-5.. Request article

Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. R. (2009). Disgust. Entry for the Oxford Companion to Affective Science. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp.121-122. Request article

---------- 2010 ----------

Iyer, R., Graham, J., Koleva, S., Ditto, P., & Haidt, J (2010). Beyond Identity Politics: Moral Psychology and the 2008 Democratic Primary. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 10, 293-306. Request article


Haidt, J. (2010). Wired to be inspired. In D. Keltner, J. Marsh, & J. A. Smith (Eds.), The compassionate instinct. New York: Norton.
This article was originally published in Greater Good magazine, Spring/summer 2005 View article

77 **Haidt, J., & Kesebir, S. (2010). Morality. In S. Fiske, & D. Gilbert (Eds.) Handbook of Social Psychology, 5th Edition. Request article
--This is my absolute most-complete statement on what morality is, where it comes from, how it works, and why people disagree about it. It is in essence a precis of my next book, The Righteous Mind. It's long, and it's written for an audience of social psychologists, but it should be accessible to non-specialists.
78 Haidt, J. (2010). Finding meaning in vital engagement and good hives. (Commentary on Susan Wolf’s 2007 Tanner Lectures at Princeton). In: Meaning in life, and why it matters. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 92-101.Request article
79 Haidt, J. (2010). Moral psychology must not be based on faith and hope. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 182-184.Request article
--This is a response to a critique of my work by Darcia Narvaez
80 Graham, J. & Haidt, J. (2010). Beyond Beliefs: Religion Binds Individuals into Moral Communities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 140-150.. Request article

Vianello, M., Galliani, E. M., & Haidt, J. (2010). Elevation at work: The organizational effects of leaders’ moral excellence. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 390-411. Request Paper

---------- 2011 ----------
82  Lobue, V., Nishida, T., Chiong, C., Deloache, J., & Haidt, J. (2011). When getting something good is bad: Even 3-year-olds react to inequality. Social Development, 20, 154-170. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00560.x Request article
--This paper offers the first evidence that 3-year-olds have an intuitive and negative response to unfair divisions. Previous research has focused primarily on on children's conceptual understanding of fairness, which emerges only years after the intuitive response is in place.

Sherman, G., & Haidt, J. (2011). Cuteness and disgust: The humanizing and dehumanizing effects of emotion. Emotion Review, 3, 245-251.


Graham, J., & Haidt, J. (2011). Sacred values and evil adversaries: A Moral Foundations approach. In P. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Morality: Exploring the Causes of Good and Evil. New York: APA Books.


Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 366-385.


Haidt, J., & Joseph, C. (2011). How Moral Foundations Theory Succeeded in Building on Sand: A Response to Suhler and Churchland. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2117-2122.

---------- 2012 ----------

Koleva, S. P., Graham, J., Ditto, P., Iyer, R., & Haidt, J. (2012). Tracing the threads: how five moral concerns (especially Purity) help explain culture war attitudes. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(2), 184-194. Request article

88 Sherman, G. D., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L. (2012). The faintest speck of dirt: Disgust enhances impurity detection. Psychological Science, 23, p. 1506-1514, doi:10.1177/0956797612445318

Inbar, Y., Pizarro, D., Iyer, R., & Haidt, J.   (2012). Disgust Sensitivity, Political Conservatism, and Voting. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 537-544. doi:10.1177/1948550611429024

90 ** Iyer, R., Koleva, S. P., Graham, J., Ditto, P. H., & Haidt, J. (2012). Understanding Libertarian morality: The psychological dispositions of self-identified libertarians. PLoS ONE 7:e42366doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.
91  Koleva, S., & Haidt, J., (2012). Let’s use Einstein’s safety razor, not Occam’s Swiss Army knife or Occam’s chainsaw. Psychological Inquiry, 23, 175-178. [Link]
92 Graham, J., Nosek, B., & Haidt, J. (2012). The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences across the Political Spectrum. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50092. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050092
93 Englander, Morris, & Haidt (2012). Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing. PloS one, 7. [Link]
---------- 2013 ----------
94 Haidt, J. (2013) Of freedom and fairness. Democracy Journal, 28, Spring 2013.
95 Sherman, G. D., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., & Coan, J. A. (2013). Individual differences in the physical embodiment of care: Prosocially oriented women respond to cuteness by becoming more physically careful. Emotion, 13, 151-158. doi: 10.1037/a0029259
96 Diessner, R., Iyer, R., Smith, M. M., & Haidt, J. (2013). Who engages with moral beauty?  Journal of Moral Education, 42, 139-163. [Link]
97 Rozin, P., & Haidt, J. (2013) The domains of disgust and their origins: Contrasting biological and cultural evolutionary accounts. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.tics.2013.06.001
98 Haidt, J. (2013). Moral psychology and the law: How intuitions drive reasoning, judgment, and the search for evidence. University of Alabama Law Review, 64, 867-903. [Link]

** Graham, J., Haidt, J., Koleva, S., Motyl, M., Iyer, R., Wojcik, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2013). Moral foundations theory: The pragmatic validity of moral pluralism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, p. 55-130. Link to manuscript here. And final pub here.


Haidt, Jonathan. (2013). Moral psychology for the 21st century. Journal of Moral Education, 42, p. 281-297. DOI:10.1080/03057240.2013.817327


Lai, C. K., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men. Cognition and Emotion. [Link on SSRN]. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2013.861342

---------- 2014 ----------

Kluver, Jesse, Frazier, Rebecca, & Haidt, Jonathan. (2014). Behavioral ethics for Homo economicus, Homo heuristicus, and Homo duplex.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 123, 150-158. [Link]


Olatunji, B. O., Ebesutani, C., Haidt, J., & Sawchuk, C. N. (2014). Specificity of disgust domains in the prediction of contamination anxiety and avoidance: A multimodal examination. Behavior Therapy, 45, 469-481. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2014.02.006


Lai, C. K., Marini, M., Lehr, S. A., Cerruti, C., Shin, J.-E. L., Joy-Gaba, J. A., Ho, A. K., Teachman, B. A., Wojcik, S. P., Koleva, S. P., Frazier, R. S., Heiphetz, L., Chen, E. E., Turner, R. N., Haidt, J., Kesebir, S., Hawkins, C. B., Schaefer, H. S., Rubichi, S., Sartori, G., Dial, C., Sriram, N., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2014). Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: I. A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

---------- 2015 ----------
105 Talhelm, T., Haidt, J., Oishi, S., Zhang, X., Miao, F. F., & Chen, S. (2015). Liberals think more analytically (more “WEIRD”) than conservatives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Articles in press (accepted for publication)

Duarte, J. L., Crawford, J. T., Stern, S., Haidt, J., Jussim, L., & Tetlock, P. E. (in press). Ideological diversity will improve psychological science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.


Kluver, J., Frazier, R., Haidt, J. (in press). Psychology and business ethics. Encyclopedia of Management.






To obtain an electronic copy of recent articles that are not posted, please email me: haidt at

To see articles about my work, or to view talks I have given about moral psychology, please click here.

To see my recent political writings and talks, visit

III) Working papers (under review or revision)

Glenn, A. L., Koleva, S., Iyer, R., Graham, J., Ditto, P., & Haidt, J. (submitted). Psychopathic personality traits predict utilitarian moral judgment. (Under review, Cognition & Emotion)
Graham, J., Englander, Z., Morris, J. P., Hawkins, C. B., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (under review). Warning Bell: Liberals Implicitly Respond to Group Morality Before Rejecting it Explicitly (under review at JPSP)
Graham, J., Sherman, G. D., Iyer, R., Hawkins, C., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. (2010). Liberal head, conservative gut: Affect and ideology in moral decision-making. (under review at JEP:General).
Haidt, J., Sabini, J., Gromet, D., & Darley, J. (n.d.). What exactly makes revenge sweet? (under revision, to be resubmitted to  Emotion)
Kluver, J., Frazier, R., & Haidt, J. (submitted). Behavioral ethics for Homo economicus, Homo heuristicus, and Homo duplex.
Sherman, G. D., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L., Graham, J. & Iyer, R. (2010). Sacredness is grounded in black and white. How visual perception affects the price-tag of moral values. (under review.)
Sherman, G. D., Clore, G. L., & Haidt, J. (submitted). When metaphor shapes experience: Explicit purity beliefs are associated with altered preferences and perceptions. (under review)
Sherman, G. D., Haidt, J.,  Iyer, R. (submitted). Disgust Sensitivity is Elevated in Pathogen-Rich Environments. (under review)


IV) Popular press or less academic articles (selected)

Haidt, J. (2006). “Higher Ground.”  Psychotherapy Networker. January/February issue, p.49
Haidt, J. (2006). “The morality of a billiard table versus the morality of a hive.”
Haidt, J. (2006). “Humans are Hive Creatures.” Free Inquiry, 26, p.47.

Haidt, J. (2007). “The Spirit of Dharmacracy.” Op-ed, Los Angeles Times, 1/14/07
Haidt, J. (2007). “Honey I shrunk the President.” Op-ed, Los Angeles Times, 12/16/07
Haidt, J. (2007). The baby boomers will soon retire. On, reprinted in: J. Brockman (Ed.). What are you optimistic about? New York: Harper Perennial.

Haidt, J. (2008). Hanging out with the boys. On, reprinted in: J. Brockman (Ed.). What have you changed your mind about? New York: HarperCollins.

Haidt, J. (2009) Obama’s moral majority. Prospect (UK), February
Haidt, J. (2009). Faster evolution means more ethnic differences. On, reprinted in: J. Brockman (Ed.). This will change everything: Ideas that will shape the future. New York: HarperCollins.
Haidt, J. (2009) Moral Psychology and the Healthcare Debate (on TED Blog)

Haidt, J. (2010). What is wrong with those Tea Partiers? On Larry Sabato's Crystal Ball, 2/2010
Haidt, J. (2010). Fast Evolution. Chronicle of Higher Education, Chronical Review (special issue on "the defining idea of the next decade"), 9/3/10
Haidt, J. (2010). What the tea partiers really want. Wall St. Journal, 10/16/10
Haidt, J. (2010). Review of Anthony Appiah's "The Honor Code." New York Times Book Review, 10/24/10.

Haidt, J. (2011) Why we celebrate a killing. (New York Times, Op-Ed, 5/7/2011, on the death of Bin Laden).
Haidt, J. (2011) The moral foundations of Occupy Wall Street (Reason Magazine, 10/20/11)

Haidt, J. (2012) How to get the rich to share the marbles. (New York Times, campaign stops, 2/20/12)
Haidt, J. (2012) Forget the money, follow the sacredness. (New York Times, op-ed, 3/19/12)
Haidt, J. (2012) Why we love to lose ourselves in religion (, 4/1/12)
Haidt, J. (2012) Born this way? Nature, nurture, narratives, and the making of our political personalities. (cover story in Reason Magazine, May 2012. It’s a modified excerpt from Ch. 12)
Haidt, J. (2012) Look how far we've come apart. New York Times, 9/18/12.
Haidt, J. (2012) Romney, Obama, and the new culture war over fairness. Time Magazine, 10/8/12.
Haidt, J. (2012) Reasons matter (when intuitions don't object). New York Times, 10/17/12.
Haidt, J. (2012) We need a little fear. New York Times, 11/7/12.
Haidt, J., & Movius, H. (2012). Moral values and the fiscal cliff. Washington Post, 11/16/12.

Haidt, J. (2013). Of Freedom and FairnessDemocracy Journal, Spring 2013. 

Haidt, J. (2014) Why Sam Harris is unlikely to change his mind. This View of Life, 2/3/14
Haidt, J. (2014). Your personality makes your politics. Time Magazine, 1/9/14
Haidt, J. (2014). Can you teach businessmen to be ethical? Washington Post, 1/13/14.
Haidt, J. (2014) Wonderful vs. Wonder-Free Companies. Huffington Post 3/5/2014.

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Last Updated December 30, 2014

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